What are the advantages and disadvantages of relative dating

What are the advantages of relative dating over absolute dating

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What are the advantages and disadvantages of radiometric dating

all radiometric-dating techniques are based on the well-established principle from physics that large samples of radioactive isotopes decay at precisely known rates. dating is used to date charcoal, wood, and other biological materials. living organisms (with the exception of some microbes) synthesize and incorporate only the l-form into proteins. the most common and widely used relative dating technique is stratigraphy. the protons are quickly replaced, but will return to either side of the amino acid, not necessarily to the side from which they came. over time, more and more fluorine incorporates itself into the bone. however, climates do not change rapidly, so this type of analysis is best for archaeological sites dating back to the last ice age. absolute dating methods produce an actual date, usually accurate to within a few years., also known as tree-ring dating, is the earliest form of absolute dating. as long as the plant is alive, the relative amount (ratio) of carbon-14 to carbon-12 remains constant at about one carbon-14 atom for every one trillion carbon-12 atoms. techniques are procedures used by scientists to determine the age of a specimen. the technique works best if the animals belonged to species that evolved quickly, expanded rapidly over a large area, or suffered a mass extinction. scientific dating techniques such as dendrochronology and radiocarbon dating were introduced to archaeology, the discipline was dominated by extensive discussions of the chronological sequence of events. although these units may be sequential, they are not necessarily continuous due to erosional removal of some intervening units. in absolute dating , the age of an object is determined by some chemical or physical process without reference to a chronology. in a landmark study, archaeologist james ford used seriation to determine the chronological order of american indian pottery styles in the mississippi valley. in addition to providing rough absolute dates for specimens buried in the same stratigraphic unit as the bones, faunal analysis can also provide relative ages for objects buried above or below the fauna-encasing layers. however, patterns of tree ring growth have been built up by "overlapping" ring sequences from different trees so that the tree ring record extends back several thousand years in many parts of the world. there are many factors that must be taken into account when determining the age of an object. scientists can determine an approximate age for a layer by examining which species or genera of animals are buried in it. rate at which the reaction occurs is different for each amino acid; in addition, it depends upon the moisture, temperature , and ph of the postmortem conditions. the other uses some measurable change that occurs at a known rate, as in chemical dating, radioactive (or radiometric) dating (see carbon dating; fission-track dating; potassium–argon dating; rubidium–strontium dating; uranium–lead dating), and thermoluminescence. if an object is too old to be dated by radiocarbon dating, or if it contains no organic material, other methods must be used. when the organism dies, the supply stops, and the carbon-14 contained in the organism begins to spontaneously decay into nitrogen-14. the patterns from trees of different ages (including ancient wood) are overlapped, forming a master pattern that can be used to date timbers thousands of years old with a resolution of one year. series dating techniques rely on the fact that radioactive uranium and thorium isotopes decay into a series of unstable, radioactive "daughter" isotopes; this process continues until a stable (non-radioactive) lead isotope is formed. the reversible reaction eventually creates equal amounts of l–and d-forms (d/l=1. carbonates may be dated this way using, for example, the daughter/parent isotope pair protactinium-231/uranium-235 (231pa/235u).-argon dating relies on the fact that when volcanic rocks are heated to extremely high temperatures, they release any argon gas trapped in them. if a date for a certain layer in an excavation can be established using an absolute dating method, other artifacts in the same layer can safely be assigned the same age. the advent of absolute dating methods in the twentieth century, nearly all dating was relative.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of internet dating

for example, by studying the decorations used on pottery, the types of materials used in the pottery, and the types and shapes of pots, it is often possible to arrange them into a sequence without knowing the actual date. also evolution, evidence of; fossil record; fossils and fossilization; geologic time; historical geology. absolute dates are also relative dates, in that they tell which specimens are older or younger than others. as a result, this knowledge will enable us to achieve a progressively better understanding of our own culture. potassium-argon dating has been used to date volcanic layers above and below fossils and artifacts in east africa . the two main types of dating methods are relative and absolute.. Make research projects and school reports about Dating Techniques easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and dictionary. absolute dating methods are used to determine an actual date in years for the age of an object. absolute dating method utilizing tree ring growth is known as dendrochronology. the higher the temperature, the faster the reaction occurs, so the cooler the burial environment, the greater the dating range. the first depends on the existence of something that develops at a seasonally varying rate, as in dendrochronology and varve dating. in addition, tree rings are used to date changes in the climate such as sudden cool or dry periods. these plants are eaten by animals who, in turn, are eaten by even larger animals. radioactive decay dating is not a single method of absolute dating but instead a group of related methods for absolute dating of samples. fossils and relative dating fossils are important for working out the relative ages of sedimentary rocks. timbers can be used to date buildings and archaeological sites. however, the archaeologist can detect bioturbation and allow for its effects. the dates when areas of north america were first settled by immigrants can be determined to within a few years by looking for the introduction of ragweed pollen. by measuring the amount of original and transformed atoms in an object, scientists can determine the age of that object. over the lifetime of the tree, these rings accumulate, and the rings form a record of regional variation in climate that may extend back hundreds of years. radiocarbon dating can be used for small bits of clothing or other fabric, bits of bone, baskets, or anything that contains organic material. this is done by counting the number of pieces of each style of the artifact in each stratigraphic layer and then graphing the data. then older trees are added to the sequence by overlapping the inner rings of a younger sample with the outer rings of an older sample. cation-ratio dating has been widely used, recent studies suggest it has potential errors. absolute dates must agree with dates from other relative methods in order to be valid. of the most familiar applications of radioactive dating is determining the age of fossilized remains, such as dinosaur bones. depositional rates of sediments have also been employed as a dating method, but only recently has absolute dating been made possible through the use of radioactive isotopes. certain dating techniques are accurate only within certain age ranges, whenever possible, scientists attempt to use multiple methods to date specimens. the technique was first applied in the american southwest and later extended to other parts of the world. thermoluminescence dating has the advantage of covering the time interval between radiocarbon and potassium-argon dating, or 40,000–200,000 years. electrons from quartz and other minerals in the pottery clay are bumped out of their normal positions (ground state) when the clay is exposed to radiation.

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Relative dating - Wikipedia

one of the advantages of fission track dating is that it has an enormous dating range. Relative dating does not provide actual numerical dates for the rocks." the marks, called tracks, are the damage caused by the fission (splitting) of the uranium atoms. it can be used to obtain dates that would be unobtainable by more conventional methods such as radiocarbon dating. for example, 234u dissolves more readily in water than its parent, 238u, so lakes and oceans contain an excess of this daughter isotope. this method should prove to be especially useful in determining the age of ceramics, rocks that have been used to build fire rings, and samples of chert and flint that have been deliberately heated to make them easier to flake into a projectile point. the daughters have relatively short half-lives ranging from a few hundred thousand years down to only a few years. the varnish contains cations, which are positively charged atoms or molecules. the bands are arranged into battleship-shaped curves, with each style getting its own curve. thus, the growth pattern of a tree of a known age can be used as a standard to determine the age of similar trees. a relative time scale, constructed in the last century, is based on correlations between palaeontological and stratigraphic data. non-uranium daughters such as protactinium and thorium are insoluble, and precipitate out on the bottoms of bodies of water, forming daughter excesses in these sediments. age of the remains of plants, animals, and other organic material can be determined by measuring the amount of carbon-14 contained in that material. eventually, the entire ecosystem (community of plants and animals) of the planet, including humans, is filled with a concentration of carbon-14. this technique can only be applied to rocks from desert areas, where the varnish is most stable. people who examine pollen grains (the study of which is known as pollen analysis ) can usually determine the genus , and often the exact species producing a certain pollen type. automobile manufacturers frequently introduce new styles about every year, so archaeologists thousands of years from now will have no difficulty identifying the precise date of a layer if the layer contains automobile parts. this process sets the fission track clock to zero, and the number of tracks that then form are a measure of the amount of time that has passed since the heating event. it is very similar to thermoluminescence dating, both of which are considered "clock setting" techniques. a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. correlation of dates via different dating methods provides a highest degree of confidence in dating. most of those questions have now been settled and archaeologists have moved on to other issues. the archaeologist must be able to distinguish between objects that were made at the same time and objects that were made at different times. rodent burrows, root action, and human activity can mix layers in a process known as bioturbation. for a fossil to be a good index fossil, it needs to have lived during one specific time period, be easy to identify and have been abundant and found in many places. scientists can determine the age of the sample by measuring how much 231pa is present and calculating how long it would have taken that amount to form. relative dating methods are used to determine only if one sample is older or younger than another. it has been used to date coprolites (fossilized feces) as well as fossil bones and shells.. thermoluminescence (pronounced ther-moeloo-mi-nes-ence) dating is very useful for determining the age of pottery. as long as they are alive, all living organisms have the same ratio of carbon-14 to carbon-12 as in the atmosphere because the radioactive carbon is continually replenished, either through photosynthesis or through the food animals eat.: also known as tree-ring dating, the science concerned with determining the age of trees by examining their growth rings.

Dating Techniques facts, information, pictures |

radiocarbon dating was first put into use, it was decided that dates would always be reported as b. zones are translated into absolute dates by the use of radiocarbon dating. methods during the last century geologists constructed a relative time scale based on correlation of palaeontological and stratigraphic data. it is therefore essential that the archaeologist is able to establish the age of the artifacts or other material remains and arrange them in a chronological sequence. a limitation to this method is that it assumes all differences in artifact styles are the result of different periods of time, and are not due to the immigration of new cultures into the area of study. scientists can determine how many years have passed since a ceramic was fired by heating it in the laboratory and measuring how much light is given off. douglas was trying to develop a correlation between climate variations and sunspot activity , but archaeologists quickly recognized its usefulness as a dating tool. the method of reading the order is called stratigraphy (layers of rock are called strata). the curves are then compared with one another, and from this the relative ages of the styles are determined. the main relative dating method is stratigraphy (pronounced stra-ti-gra-fee), which is the study of layers of rocks or the objects embedded within those layers. is the most common and best known of radiometric dating techniques, but it is also possibly the most misunderstood. techniques are procedures used by scientists to determine the age of an object or a series of events. relative dating arranges artifacts in a chronological sequence from oldest to most recent without reference to the actual date. because of this limitation, other dating techniques are often used along with radioactive dating to ensure accuracy. uranium series have been used to date uranium-rich rocks, deep-sea sediments, shells, bones, and teeth, and to calculate the ages of ancient lakebeds. yes no teacher or other school staff student teacher early years teacher primary teacher – years 1 - 8 secondary teacher – years 9 - 13 head of science/leader of science principal school student school student – years 1 - 8 school student – years 9 - 13 someone else teacher educator or pld provider scientist or someone working in science a parent or caregiver other: topics and concepts articles and activities relative dating is used to arrange geological events, and the rocks they leave behind, in a sequence. the most widely used and accepted form of absolute dating is radioactive decay dating. see also absolute age; radioactive decay; radiometric dating; isotopic dating; radio-carbon dating; dendrochronology; geochronology; geochronometry; and varve analysis. relative dating methods tell only if one sample is older or younger than another sample; absolute dating methods provide a date in years. archaeologists rarely make these determinations on the basis of a single example. many absolute dating techniques take advantage of radioactive decay, whereby a radioactive form of an element is converted into another radioactive isotope or non-radioactive product at a regular rate. in the early twenty-first century, the dating of objects up to about 10 half-lives, or up to about 50,000 years old, is possible. 14c levels can be measured in tree rings and used to correct for the 14c/12c ratio in the atmosphere at the time the organism died, and can even be used to calibrate some dates directly. in years with plenty of rain, the layer will be thick and healthy. the best objects are bits of charcoal that have been preserved in completely dry environments. the thickness of the layer depends on local weather and climate. to determine the age of sediment, scientists expose grains to a known amount of light and compare these grains with the unknown sediment. for example, microscopic dinoflagellates have been studied and dated in great detail around the world. term faunal dating refers to the use of animal bones to determine the age of sedimentary layers or objects such as cultural artifacts embedded within those layers. plants get most of their carbon from the air in the form of carbon dioxide , and animals get most of their carbon from plants (or from animals that eat plants). dating has become the standard technique for determining the age of organic remains (those remains that contain carbon).

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  • Chronological dating - Wikipedia

    dating is the term used to describe any dating technique that tells how old a specimen is in years. some fossils, called index fossils, are particularly useful in correlating rocks. the rings form a distinctive pattern, which is the same for all members in a given species and geographical area. for this reason, and because some of the amino acid racimization dates have disagreed with dates achieved by other methods, the technique is no longer widely used. some animals eat plants and other animals eat the plant-eaters. if a certain kind of pollen is found in an archaeological site, scientists can check when the plant that produced that pollen lived to determine the relative age of the site. this type of archaeological research produces hundreds of small plastic bags containing pottery shards, animal bones, bits of worked stone, and other fragments. many of the dates obtained with this method are inaccurate due to improper chemical analyses. older trees are recovered from old buildings, archaeological sites, peat bogs, and swamps. addition to the radiocarbon dating technique, scientists have developed other dating methods based on the transformation of one element into another. however, hisarlik was occupied by many different cultures at various times both before and after the time of troy, and each culture built on top of the ruins of the previous culture, often after violent conquest. correlation with them has helped geologists date many new zealand rocks, including those containing dinosaurs. sometimes an electron will be knocked out of its position in a crystal and will "stick" somewhere else in the crystal. the worst candidates are bits of wood that have been saturated with sea water, since sea water contains dissolved atmospheric carbon dioxide that may throw off the results. if the radioactive daughter is an isotope of uranium, it will dissolve in water, but to a different extent than the parent; the two are said to have different solubilities.-ratio dating is used to date rock surfaces such as stone artifacts and cliff and ground drawings. other sites have been continuously occupied by the same culture for a long time and the different layers represent gradual changes. this precision has allowed archaeologists working in the american southwest to reconstruct patterns of village growth and subsequent abandonment with a fineness of detail unmatched in most of the world. the case of daughter excess, a larger amount of the daughter is initially deposited than the parent. however, objects less than 300 years old cannot be reliably dated because of the widespread burning of fossil fuels, which began in the nineteenth century, and the production of carbon-14 from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons in the 1950s and 1960s. the results do not agree, but the differences are consistent. the rings form a distinctive pattern, which is the same for all members in a given species and geographical area. others, such as amino acid racimization and cation-ratio dating, are based on chemical changes in the organic or inorganic composition of a sample. relative dating does not provide actual numerical dates for the rocks. volcanic minerals and glasses, such as obsidian , contain uranium-238 (238u). radiocarbon dating is that diagenic (after death) demands consideration regarding potential contamination of a specimen and a proper application of changes in the 14c/12c ratio in the atmosphere over time. it also works best when a characteristic is widely shared among many different members of a group. take a moment to tell us about yourself: keep up to date subscribe to our newsletter are you a new zealand resident? the particular radioisotope used to determine the age of an object depends on the type of object and its age. samples that were heated or irradiated at some time may yield by radioactive dating an age less than the true age of the object. living mollusks and corals will only take up dissolved compounds such as isotopes of uranium, so they will contain no protactinium, which is insoluble.

    Fluoride Dating

    since absolute dating techniques have become common, the use of cross dating has decreased significantly. since all of the trees in a region experience the same climate variations, they will have similar growth patterns and similar tree ring patterns. artifact styles such as pottery types are seriated by analyzing their abundances through time. that way, dates reported in magazine articles and books do not have to be adjusted as the years pass. as our knowledge of past chronologies improves, archaeologists will be better able to understand how cultures change over time, and how different cultures interact with each other. some of the most useful fossils for dating purposes are very small ones. a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. relative to their atmospheric proportions, atoms of 14c and of a non-radioactive form of carbon, 12c, are equally likely to be incorporated into living organisms. a layer with many pieces of a particular style will be represented by a wide band on the graph, and a layer with only a few pieces will be represented by a narrow band. objects heated only a few decades ago may be dated if they contain relatively high levels of 238u; conversely, some meteorites have been dated to over a billion years old with this method. in the last 50 years, radiocarbon dating has provided the basis for a worldwide cultural chronology. however, dendrochronology provides an important calibration technique for radiocarbon dating techniques. dating methods determine whether one sample is older or younger than another. however, louis and mary leakey successfully used the method to determine the ages of fossils in olduvai gorge in tanzania by examining rocks from lava flows above and below the fossils. scientists are able to count the tracks in the sample with the aid of a powerful microscope. at its best, archaeology involves a studious examination of the past with the goal of learning important information about the culture and customs of ancient (or not so ancient) peoples. absolute dating relies on the decay of radioactive isotopes of elements present in the material to be dated (see decay constant; decay curve; decay series; isotopic dating; radiocarbon dating; and radiometric dating). absolute (or chronometric) techniques give an absolute estimate of the age and fall into two main groups. the burial conditions are not always known, however, and can be difficult to estimate. pastures for grazing livestock are distinguishable from fields of grain, so changes in the use of the land over time are recorded in the pollen history. method is not widely used in archaeology, since most archaeological deposits are not associated with volcanic activity. the nucleus of every radioactive element (such as radium and uranium) spontaneously disintegrates over time, transforming itself into the nucleus of an atom of a different element. through time, the parent decays to the daughter until the two are in equilibrium (equal amounts of each). in recent years, a few of these methods have undergone continual refinement as scientists strive to develop the most accurate dating techniques possible. without radioactive dating, a clever forgery might be indistinguishable from a real artifact. and television have presented a romantic vision of archaeology as adventure in far-away and exotic locations. radioactive dating is also used to authenticate the age of rare archaeological artifacts. scientific dating techniques have had a huge impact on archaeology. a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. this excess is transferred to organisms such as mollusks or corals, and is the basis of 234u/238u dating. over time, the excess daughter disappears as it is converted back into the parent, and by measuring the extent to which this has occurred, scientists can date the sample.
    • Relative dating — Science Learning Hub

      that fossil species may have been dated somewhere else, so you can match them and say that your fossil has a similar age. cation ratio dating relies on the principle that the cation ratio (k++ca2+)/ti4+ decreases with increasing age of a sample. this method is based on the assumption (which nearly always holds true) that deeper layers of rock were deposited earlier in earth's history, and thus are older than more shallow layers. a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. when the ceramic is heated to a very high temperature (over 932°f [500°c]), these electrons fall back to the ground state, emitting light in the process and resetting the "clock" to zero. there is rarely enough time to complete the work, but of even greater interest is the time that has passed since the artifact was created. a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. daughter deficiency situations, the parent radioisotope is initially deposited by itself, without its daughter (the isotope into which it decays) present. by comparing the relative amounts of fluorine composition of skeletal remains, one can determine whether the remains were buried at the same time. when objects that were made at different times are excavated, the archaeologist must be able to arrange them in a sequence from the oldest to the most recent. a piece of pottery is heated in a laboratory at temperatures more than 930°f (500°c), electrons from quartz and other minerals in the pottery clay emit light. this method is generally only applicable to rocks greater than three million years old, although with sensitive instruments, rocks several hundred thousand years old may be dated. next time you find a cliff or road cutting with lots of rock strata, try working out the age order using some simple principles: sedimentary rocks are normally laid down in order, one on top of another. of the various methods the last is obviously the most precise, but fossils, lithologies, and cross-cutting relationships do enable the geologist to give an approximate relative age in field studies. these are generally analytical methods, and are carried out in a laboratory. this provides a dating range for the different uranium series of a few thousand years to 500,000 years. narrow rings grow in cold or dry years, and wide rings grow in warm or wet years. these include the uranium-thorium method, the potassium-argon method, and the rubidium-strontium method. when an atom of 238u splits, two "daughter" atoms rocket away from each other, leaving in their wake tracks in the material in which they are embedded. an early excavator of hisarlik, heinrich schleimann, inadvertently dug through the troy layer into an earlier occupation and mistakenly assigned the gold artifacts he found there to troy. however, seriation only works when variations in a cultural characteristic are due to rapid and significant change over time. the range of conventional radiocarbon dating is 30,000–40,000 years, but with sensitive instrumentation, this range can be extended to 70,000 years. dating is used to arrange geological events, and the rocks they leave behind, in a sequence. if the same pottery type is found in another excavation nearby, it is safe to assume that the layers are the same age. this means that no matter how many atoms are in a sample, approximately one-half will decay in one half-life. usually, several different techniques are applied to the same object. like potassium-argon dating, this can only be used to determine the age of the rock, not the age of the artifact itself. it requires a much smaller sample than radiocarbon dating, and has a longer range, extending up to a few hundred thousand years. for example, consider how automobiles have changed in the last 50 years (a relatively short time in archaeology). narrow rings grow in cold and/or dry years, and wide rings grow in warm years with plenty of moisture. in addition, pollen dating provides relative dates beyond the limits of radiocarbon (40,000 years), and can be used in some places where radiocarbon dates are unobtainable.
    • What is the difference between relative dating and radiometric

      methods the methods used to determine the relative or absolute age of rocks, fossils, or remains of archaeological interest. known as dendrochronology (pronounced den-dro-crow-nol-o-gee), tree-ring dating is based on the fact that trees produce one growth ring each year. samples of bristlecone pine, a tree with a very long life span, have been dated using both dendrochronology and radiocarbon dating. throughout the history of life, different organisms have appeared, flourished and become extinct. they were able to establish an absolute chronology for humans and human ancestors extending back two million years. the mineral or glass is heated, the tracks are erased in much the same way cut marks fade away from hard candy that is heated. archaeologists can then use this information to determine the relative ages of some sites and layers within sites. the removed material is carefully sifted to find small artifacts , tiny animal bones, and other remains. most sedimentary rocks are laid down in flat (horizontal) layers, although these can later tilt and fold. dating is very useful for determining the age of pottery. in the american southwest, the accuracy and precision of dendrochronology has enabled the development of one of the most. scientists use cation-ratio dating to determine how long rock surfaces have been exposed. relative dating techniques date specimens in relation to one another; for example, stratigraphy is used to establish the succession of fossils. they are abundant and they survive very well in archaeological contexts. The method of reading the order is called stratigraphy (layers of rock are called strata). the ages of buildings and archaeological sites can also be determined by examining the ring patterns of the trees used in their construction. before the advent of absolute dating methods, nearly all dating was relative. dating technique of amino acid racimization was first conducted by hare and mitterer in 1967, and was popular in the 1970s. this occurs because protons (h+) are removed from the amino acids by acids or bases present in the burial environment. another problem with radiocarbon dating is that the production of carbon-14 in the atmosphere has not been constant, due to variation in solar activity. it is based on the assumption (which, except at unconformities , nearly always holds true) that deeper layers were deposited earlier, and thus are older than more shallow layers. even then, it can only be applied to a small geographic area, because there is also geographic variation in cultural characteristics. if you find ammonites in a rock in the south island and also in a rock in the north island, you can say that both rocks are mesozoic.. calibrated dates are given using the actual date, such as 950 c. geologists have studied the order in which fossils appeared and disappeared through time and rocks. the rate at which sediments accumulate can also be used for dating (see varve). this method was first developed by the american astronomer andrew ellicott douglas at the university of arizona in the early 1900s. beds that are related are grouped together into members, and members are grouped into formations. absolute dates must agree with dates from other relative methods in order to be valid. because items such as paper documents and cotton garments are produced from plants, they can be dated using radiocarbon dating. there are some limitations, however, to the use of this technique.
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